The sources and evolution of mineralising fluids in iron oxide-copper-gold systems, Norbotten, Sweden: Constraints from Br/Cl ratios and stable Cl isotopes of fluid inclusion leachates
Gleeson, S.A. and Smith, M.P. (2009) The sources and evolution of mineralising fluids in iron oxide-copper-gold systems, Norbotten, Sweden: Constraints from Br/Cl ratios and stable Cl isotopes of fluid inclusion leachates Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73 (19). pp. 5658-5672. ISSN 0016-7037
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We have analysed the halogen concentrations and chlorine stable isotope composition of fluid inclusion leachates from three spatially associated Fe-oxide ± Cu ± Au mineralising systems in Norrbotten, Sweden. Fluid inclusions in late-stage veins in Fe-oxide–apatite deposits contain saline brines and have a wide range of Br/Cl molar ratios, from 0.2 to 1.1 × 10−3 and δ37Cl values from −3.1‰ to −1.0‰. Leachates from saline fluid inclusions from the Greenstone and Porphyry hosted Cu–Au prospects have Br/Cl ratios that range from 0.2 to 0.5 × 10−3 and δ37Cl values from −5.6‰ to −1.3‰. Finally, the Cu–Au deposits hosted by the Nautanen Deformation Zone (NDZ) have Br/Cl molar ratios from 0.4 to 1.1 × 10−3 and δ37Cl values that range from −2.4‰ to +0.5‰, although the bulk of the data fall within 0‰ ± 0.5‰. The Br/Cl ratios of leachates are consistent with the derivation of salinity from magmatic sources or from the dissolution of halite. Most of the isotopic data from the Fe-oxide–apatite and Greenstone deposits are consistent with a mantle derived source of the chlorine, with the exception of the four samples with the most negative values. The origin of the low δ37Cl values in these samples is unknown but we suggest that there may have been some modification of the Cl-isotope signature due to fractionation between the mineralising fluids and Cl-rich silicate assemblages found in the alteration haloes around the deposits. If such a process has occurred then a modified crustal source of the chlorine for all the samples cannot be ruled out although the amount of fractionation necessary to generate the low δ37Cl values would be significantly larger. The source of Cl in the NDZ deposits has a crustal signature, which suggests the Cl in this system may be derived from (meta-) evaporites or from input from crustal melts such as granitic pegmatites of the Lina Suite.
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