The expressiveness of spider diagrams augmented with constants
Stapleton, G., Howse, J., Taylor, J. and Thompson, S. (2004) The expressiveness of spider diagrams augmented with constants VLHCC '04 Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages - Human Centric Computing . pp. 91-98.
Spider diagrams are a visual language for expressing logical statements Spiders represent the existence of elements and contours denote sets. Several sound and complete spider diagram systems have been developed and it is known that the spider diagram language is equivalent in expressive power to monadic first order logic with equality. However, these sound and complete spider diagram systems do not contain syntactic elements analogous to constants in first order predicate logic. We extend the spider diagram language to include constant spiders which represent specific individuals and give formal semantics for the extended diagram language. We then prove that this extended system is equivalent in expressive power to the language of spider diagrams without constants.
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