Laser-induced incandescence study of diesel soot formation in a rapid compression machine at elevated pressures
Crua, C, Kennaird, D and Heikal, M.R. (2003) Laser-induced incandescence study of diesel soot formation in a rapid compression machine at elevated pressures Combustion and Flame, 135 (4). pp. 475-488. ISSN 0010-2180
Simultaneous laser-induced previous termincandescence (LII) and laser-induced scattering (LIS) were applied to investigate soot formation and distribution in a single cylinder rapid compression machine. The fuel used was a low sulfur reference diesel fuel with 0.04% volume 2-ethylhexyl nitrate. LII images were acquired at time intervals of 1 CA throughout the soot formation period, for a range of injection pressures up to 160 MPa, and in-cylinder pressures (ICP) up to 9 MPa. The data collected shows that although cycle-to-cycle variations in soot production were observed, the LII signal intensities converged to a constant value when sufficient cycles were averaged. The amount of soot produced was not significantly affected by changes in in-cylinder pressure. Soot was observed distributed in definite clusters, which were linked to slugs of fuel caused by oscillations in the injector needle. The highest injection pressure exhibited lower soot productions and more homogeneous soot distributions within the flame. Despite diffusion flames lasting longer with lower injection pressure, it appeared that the extended oxidation time was insufficient to oxidize the excess production of soot. In addition, soot particles were detected closer to the nozzle tip with higher injection pressures. The recording of LII sequences at high temporal resolutions has shown that three distinct phases in soot formation can be observed. First, high soot formation rates are observed before the establishment of the diffusion flame. Second, a reduced soot formation rate is apparent from the start of diffusion flame until the end of injection. Finally, high soot oxidation rates occur after the end of injection and for the duration of the flame.
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